Friday, March 28, 2014

Liquidity Preference and Solidity Preference in the 19th Century

So I've been reading Homer and Sylla's History of Interest Rates. One of the many fascinating things I've learned, is that in the market for federal debt, what we today call an inverted yield curve was at one time the norm.

From the book:
Three small loans floated in 1820–1821, principally to permit the continued redemption of high rate war loans, provide an interesting clue to investor preference... These were: 
$4.7 million “5s of 1820,” redeemable in 1832; sold at 100 = 5%.
“6s of 1820,” redeemable at pleasure of United States; sold at 102 = 5.88%.
“5s of 1821,” redeemable in 1835; sold at 1051⁄8 =4.50%, and at 108 = 4.25%. 
The yield was highest for the issue with early redemption risk and much lower for those with later redemption risks.
Nineteenth century government bonds were a bit different from modern bonds, in that the principal was repaid at the option of the borrower; repayment is usually not permitted until a certain date. [1] They were also sold with a fixed yield in terms of face value -- that's what the "5" and "6" refer to -- but the actual yield depended on the discount or premium they were sold at. The important thing for our purposes is that the further away the earliest possible date of repayment is, the lower the interest rate -- the opposite of the modern term premium. That's what the passage above is saying.

The pattern isn't limited to the 1820-21 bonds, either; it seems to exist through most of the 19th century, at least for the US. It's the same with the massive borrowing during the Civil War:
In 1864, although the war was approaching its end, it had only been half financed. The Treasury was able to sell a large volume of bonds, but not at such favorable terms as the market price of its seasoned issues might suggest. Early in the year another $100 million of the 5–20s [bonds with a minimum maturity of 5 years and a maximum of 20] were sold and then a new longer issue was sold as follows: 
1864—$75 million “6s”  redeemable in 1881, tax-exempt; sold at 104.45 = 5.60%. 
The Treasury soon made an attempt to sell 5s, which met with a lukewarm reception. In order to attract investors to the lower rate the Treasury extended the term to redemption from five to ten years and the maturity from twenty to forty years
1864—$73 million “5%, 10–40s of 1864,” redeemable 1874, due in 1904, tax-exempt; sold at 100 = 5%.
Isn't that striking? The Treasury couldn't get investors to buy its shorter bonds at an acceptable rate, so they had to issue longer bonds instead. You wouldn't see that story today.

The same pattern continues through the 1870s, with the new loans issue to refinance the Civil War debt. The first issue of bonds, redeemable in five to ten years sold at an interest rate of 5%; the next issue, redeemable in 13-15 years sold at 4.5%; and the last issue, redeemable in 27-29 years, sold at 4%. And it doesn’t seem like this is about expectations of a change in rates, like with a modern inverted yield curve. Investors simply were more worried about being stuck with uninvestable cash than about being stuck with unsaleable securities. This is a case where “solidity preference” dominates liquidity preference.

One possible way of explaining this in terms of Axel Leijonhufvud's explanation of the yield curve.

The conventional story for why long loans normally have higher interest rates than short ones is that longer loans impose greater risks on lenders. They may not be able to convert the loan to cash if they need to make some payment before it matures, and they may suffer a capital loss if interest rates change during the life of the loan. But this can't be the whole story, because short loans create the symmetric risk of not knowing what alternative asset will be available when the loan matures. In the one case, the lender risks a capital loss, but in the other case they risk getting a lower income. Why is "capital uncertainty" a greater concern than "income uncertainty"?

The answer, Leijonhufvud suggests, lies in
Keynes' ... "Vision" of a world in which currently active households must, directly or indirectly, hold their net worth in the form of titles to streams that run beyond their consumption horizon. The duration of the relevant consumption plan is limited by the sad fact that "in the Long Run, we are all dead." But the great bulk of the "Fixed Capital of the modem world" is very long- term in nature and is thus destined to survive the generation which now owns it. This is the basis for the wealth effect of changes in asset values. 
The interesting point about this interpretation of the wealth effect is that it also provides a price-theoretical basis for Keynes' Liquidity Preference theory. ... Keynes' (as well as Hicks') statement of this hypothesis has been repeatedly criticized for not providing any rationale for the presumption that the system as a whole wants to shed "capital uncertainty" rather than "income uncertainty." But Keynes' mortal consumers cannot hold land, buildings, corporate equities, British consols, or other permanent income sources "to maturity." When the representative, risk-averting transactor is nonetheless induced by the productivity of roundabout processes to invest his savings in such income sources, he must be resigned to suffer capital uncertainty. Forward markets will therefore generally show what Hicks called a "constitutional weakness" on the demand side.
I would prefer not to express this in terms of households' consumption plans. And I would emphasize that the problem with wealth in the form of long-lived production processes is not just that it produces income far into the future, but that wealth in this form is always in danger of losing its character as money. Once capital is embodied in a particular production process and the organization that carries it out, it tends to evolve into the means of carrying out that organization's intrinsic purposes, instead of the capital's own self-expansion. But for this purpose, the difference doesn't matter; either way, the problem only arises once you have, as Leijonhufvud puts it, "a system 'tempted' by the profitability of long processes to carry an asset stock which turns over more slowly than [wealth owners] would otherwise want."

The temptation of long-lived production processes is inescapable in modern economies, and explains the constant search for liquidity. But in the pre-industrial United States? I don't think so. Long-lived means of production were much less important, and to the extent they did exist, they weren't an outlet for money-capital. Capital's role in production was to finance stocks of raw materials, goods in process and inventories. There was no such thing, I don't think, as investment by capitalists in long-lived capital goods. And even land -- the long-lived asset in most settings -- was not really an option, since it was abundant. The early United States is something like Samuelson's consumption-loan world, where there is no good way to convert command over current goods into future production. [2] So there is excess demand rather than excess supply for long-lasting sources of income.

The switch over to positive term premiums comes early in the 20th century. By the 1920s, short-term loans in the New York market consistently have lower rates than corporate bonds, and 3-month Treasury bills have rates below longer bonds. Of course the organization of financial markets changed quite a lot in this period too, so one wouldn't want to read too much into this timing. But it is at least consistent with the Leijonhufvud story. Liquidity preference becomes dominant in financial markets only once there has been a decisive shift toward industrial production by long-lived firm using capital-intensive techniques, and once claims on those firms has become a viable outlet for money-capital.


* * *


A few other interesting points about 19th century US interest rates. First, they were remarkably stable, at least before the 1870s. (This fits with the historical material on interest rates that Merijn Knibbe has been presenting in his excellent posts at Real World Economics Review.)



Second, there's no sign of a Fisher equation. Nominal interest rates do not respond to changes in the price level, at all. Homer and Sylla mention that in earlier editions of the book, which dealt less with the 20th century, the concept of a "real" interest rate was not even mentioned.


As you can see from this graph, none of the major inflations or deflations between 1850 and 1960 had any effect on nominal interest rates. The idea that there is a fundamentals-determined "real" interest rate while the nominal rate adjusts in response to changes in the price level, clearly has no relevance outside the past 50 years. (Whether it describes the experience of the past 50 years either is a question for another time.)

Finally, there is no sign of "crowding out" of private by public borrowing. It is true that the federal government did have to pay somewhat higher rates during the periods of heavy borrowing (and of course also political uncertainty) in the War of 1812 and the Civil War. But rates for other borrowers didn't budge. And on the other hand, the surpluses that resulted in the redemption of the entire debt in the 1830s didn't deliver lower rates for other borrowers. Homer and Sylla:
Boston yields were about the same in 1835, when the federal debt was wiped out, as they were in 1830; this reinforces the view that there was little change in going rates of long-term interest during this five- year period of debt redemption.
If government borrowing really raises rates for private borrowers, you ought to see it here, given the absence of a central bank for most of this period and the enormous scale of federal borrowing during the Civil War. But you don't.



[1] It seems that most, though not all, bonds were repaid at the earliest possible redemption date, so it is reasonably similar to the maturity of a modern bond.

[2] Slaves are the big exception. So the obvious test for the argument I am making here would be to find the modern pattern of term premiums in the South. Unfortunately, Homer and Sylla aren't any help on this -- it seems the only local bond markets in this period were in New England.

136 comments:

  1. The stability of nominal interest rates could be put down to expectations; since people expected price stabilty, the long-term expected inflation rate is zero. They tended to do things like return to pre-war gold parities.

    The inversion could be interpreted as long-term bonds being less risky for income generating purposes. You know what rate you are locking in. Whereas with rolling short-term debt, you could run into the present situation - short rates being stuck below your target rate of return.

    I am not sure when the US railway boom started, but railways were mainly bond-financed.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Mostly agree. However, while it is true that most people pre WWII expected prices to be stable in the long run, I don't think that explains stability of nominal rates. After all, if you expect long-run stability of price level, and if current level is 25 percent above or below the historical norm (not uncommon), you should expect substantial inflation/deflation going forward. The way expectations come into this, I think, is simply that people expected interest rates themselves to be stable. If everyone thinks that the long (nominal) rate is normally around 5-6 percent and that any deviations are likely to be short-lived, then almost nobody is going to agree to a long loan at a rate much different from this, regardless of inflation expectations.

      The inversion could be interpreted as long-term bonds being less risky for income generating purposes.

      Right. But the question becomes, why are asset owners more worried about income risk in the 19th century, and capital risk in the 20th century?

      I am not sure when the US railway boom started, but railways were mainly bond-financed.

      Yes, railways were the first industries to externally finance capital investment on a large scale. There was a very large market in railway bonds from the 1870s; until the 1890s merger wave it was the only significant market for long-maturity private securities, and railways were by far the most important form of long-lived capital asset.

      I agree that the development of railways should in principle have shifted the balance toward capital uncertainty, and that this poses a challenge for the argument I' suggesting here.

      Delete
    2. Good point on the price level divergence. But if you are looking at a consol, even a 25% divergence in the price level may not move the expectations that much relative to other factors.

      As for the riskiness, it could be interpreted as a question of a longer horizon. If your investment horizon is 5 years, and you have self-reinforcing mean reversion in long-term rates, a consol may have less return risk than rolling TBills. This is an alternative way of phrasing income risk, but it fits within a more modern risk/return analysis framework.

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    3. JW Mason, "But the question becomes, why are asset owners more worried about income risk in the 19th century, and capital risk in the 20th century?"

      Is it possible that trading costs are much less significant nowadays so that nowadays people don't see so much distinction between drawing down capital to substitute for income so income stability is no longer at such a premium? Nowadays long run inflation (rather than the alternate inflation-deflation cycle of the 1800s) anyway makes income stability a bit of a mute point today. Perhaps also today the price of bonds gets set by people holding them with high leverage. If you just aim to hold a consol bond for decades and live off the income, you don't care if the bond price gyrates around but if you want to hold it at constant 5x leverage or whatever, then price gyrations cause margin calls and volatility decay etc.

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  2. Re: the slave exception. I'm no expert in 19th century finance, BUT I really wonder if there isn't something to be found in the records of long-lived I-banks that would have been close to the slave trade: Lazard, Lehman, and Alex Brown all come to mind. And to get a little hokey, I'd also look at insurance contracts related to slaves.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. What I would want to know is, did bond purchasers in slave-owning states show the same preference for longer-maturity bonds? I imagine it's possible to answer this question, but not on the basis of the data used by Homer and Sylla. Municipal bonds in the pre-Civil War US seem to have been limited to New England, and Confederate debt obviously poses a whole other set of problems.

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  3. "The switch over to positive term premiums comes early in the 20th century. By the 1920s, short-term loans in the New York market consistently have lower rates than corporate bonds, and 3-month Treasury bills have rates below longer bonds. Of course the organization of financial markets changed quite a lot in this period too..."

    Not to mention, creation of the Federal Reserve...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes. All kinds of things were changing in this period. The post suggests a level of confidence in my hypothesis that I really don't feel.

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  4. Is the phenomenon of short dated bonds being higher interest connected with those bonds not being risk free because the gold standard created a default risk? So the government bonds then were more like corporate bonds or eurozone bonds now. I think when BP got in trouble with the gulf oil spill, short term corporate debt yields for BP went sky high whilst long term yields were not so extreme. All BP debt had the risk of losing the principle; longer term debt had the mitigating attribute that if things did turn out well after all, a long lasting stream of coupons would be paid; so the yield curve was dramatically inverted. I think the same yield curve inversion phenomenon occurred with some PIIG eurozone government debt. eg
    http://soberlook.com/2011/11/inverted-italian-yield-curve-spells.html

    In the case of the US civil war, there was no gold standard BUT the bonds from the losing side would still have possibly been written off (eg as with Nazi era debt after WWII). So the same phenomenon of the debt not being risk free would have caused the inverted yield curve.

    As an aside, in the UK we have some perpetual gilts -some from as far back as the 1700s. They all have somewhat higher yields than the 50year and 55year gilts issued recently. That higher yield is partly attributable to the perpetual gilts having less liquidity but also partly because they are redeemable/callable. With a conventional 55year risk free bond, the holder is certain of making a killing in the advent of a deflationary depression. With a callable bond, that possibility is tempered somewhat.

    I guess one explanation for why long term risk free bonds typically have higher yield than short term risk free bonds is the stochastic market efficiency hypothesis
    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1101.4548.pdf
    -basically every asset price converges towards the price at which it is not profitable to borrow money to buy more of it. Long dated bonds have volatile prices because a given change in yield means a bigger change in price for a longer duration bond. More volatile asset prices mean that leverage holdings entail volatility decay losses. If a one year risk free bond had a 3% yield and financiers could borrow short term at 1% -then the bond yield would get pushed down. BUT if a 50year bond had a 3% yield, it might well not be possible to profit from borrowing money at 1% to hold it. Someone who tried to maintain a position with the maximum say 20x leverage would need to be constantly selling off the bond in order to meet margin calls whenever the bond price fell. The volatility decay losses would consume any benefit from the differential between the yield of the long dated bond and the low interest short term borrowing.

    ReplyDelete
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  5. Going along with my last comment:

    This is a link about the inverted yield curve for BP corporate debt after the gulf oil spill:
    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/energy/oilandgas/7822679/BP-oil-spill-Tony-Hayward-warns-top-BP-investors-its-likely-to-suspend-dividend.html
    "Yield curve inversions are one of the most obvious market signals that a borrower is expected to default, or even go bankrupt.
    The yield curves of US investment banks Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers both inverted in the weeks and days leading up to their collapse"

    This link has an equation: http://www.hussmanfunds.com/wmc/wmc110620.htm
    " The implied probability of default is calculated as (1-exp(-(Y-Yf)*T))/(1-R), where Y is the yield in decimal form, Yf is the yield on a presumably default-free security (in this case, we're using comparable German yields), T is maturity, and R is the recovery rate, also in decimal form."

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Stone-

      I'll have to think about this more. Part of the issue is the CDS market, which obviously doesn't apply in the 19th century. Another part is the idea that a troubled debtor might remain current on interest payments but miss near-term principal repayments. But that doesn't apply to the bonds we're talking about here, because repayment of principal is at the option of the debtor anyway, and early repayment of principal is precisely what the creditors want to avoid.

      So my preliminary view is that default fear is not what's going on here. But I admit I don't understand all this as well as I would like to.

      Delete
    2. Thinking more about this after I put that comment up, I started to think it was more to do with the alternate inflation/deflation pattern that happened in those days. I think that also fits in with the comments you made below (if I understood those right). I'm certainly also struggling with understanding all of this!

      Delete
    3. Corporate bond yield curves invert when there is a risk of default because all of the bonds move to the same dollar price. This is because they all pay off the same percentage of principal if they are in the same level of the corporate structure.

      If the prices of all the bonds drops to $80, the yields on short-dated bonds are much higher.

      However, this will not really apply in the case discussed here.

      Delete
    4. Brian-

      Thanks. That makes sense.

      Delete
  6. You say "no sign of a Fisher equation," but it's not at all clear what the sign would look like if there were one. It's plausible that, under a commodity standard, the price level is expected to mean-revert, and real interest rates are reflected mostly in (ex ante) temporary changes in the price level with fairly stable nominal interest rates. For example, if people's time preference becomes stronger, what do they do? They start buying more stuff and bidding up the price level in the short run, expecting it to fall again in the long run. Or, in Fisherian terms, they bid up the real interest rate, but not necessarily by bidding up the nominal interest rate. Empirically, without data about price expectations it's hard to say whether the Fisher equation applies or not.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Leaving aside the plausibility of this story, I don't think it works just as a matter of logic. Think about the the conventional story where the interest rate equilibrates people's time preference and the technical possibilities of converting present to future consumption -- the forces of Thrift and Productivity as they used to say. In that world, a shift in preferences toward present consumption should imply a higher real interest rate. But if the nominal interest rate is fixed, an increase in inflation due to higher demand for current consumption implies a lower real rate, not higher.

      Or maybe you are suggesting the sort of story behind the Dornbusch model of exchange rate adjustment, where an increase in the rate of time preference leads to an instantaneous jump in the price level, followed, for some reason, by a steady deflation back to the old price level? I'm sorry, but I don't understand how that's suppose to work. in the Dornbusch model, there is PPP to ensure that real exchange rates are mean-reverting. What's the mechanism in your story?

      Do you really believe this?

      Delete
    2. So, it just so happens that the fundamentals imply negative real rates just during major wars? If you are seriously proposing this story, I'm willing to engage it, but ... really?

      Delete
    3. Sorry if I'm in a muddle and this is all over my head but my impression of 1800s inflation history was that there were periods of inflation when the government was borrowing a lot to fund wars or whatever and the gold standard was let go BUT the general expectation was that those would always be swiftly followed by a severe deflation (after the gold standard was reimposed) that would reverse much of the inflation that had just happened. So buying a long term bond during a war time financial expansion when inflation was running at say +10% made a lot of sense even at a nominal yield of +4% because a period of -5% inflation (ie deflation) was a reasonable expectation.

      Delete
    4. This suggests a regular relationship between interest rates and the price level that just does not exist. Plot the nominal interest rate against average inflation over the next 5 or 10 or 20 years, you will never see anything like a slope of -1. Mostly you'll see a positive slope. Either essentially all inflation was unanticipated by bondholders, or bond yields were not set in this way.

      Delete
    5. Is it possible that in the 1800s, inflation was always unanticipated but deflation was presumed to be around the corner at times when bonds were being issued even if there was currently an inflation? So the yield curve was inverted because bond buyers were wanting an asset that would stretch out into a probable future period of deflation. Perhaps it wasn't even a case of future deflation being sure fire bet but rather of it being a fairly likely eventuality that it was as well to guard against by owning long bonds. Long bonds are the very best asset to have in a deflationary depression I guess -when dividends dry up from equities as companies suffer and tenant farmers fail to pay rents on farmland etc etc. I guess the second half of the 20th century made people forget about deflationary depressions as a phenomenon but at the end of 2008, prices of 30year US treasuries surged 30% on the hint that it could happen again.

      Delete
    6. Long *government* bonds are the best asset to have in a deflationary depression. Long *company* bonds tend to default. I wonder if this difference shows up in corporate bonds? I think it does, but I haven't rechecked the data recently.

      Delete
  7. It is difficult to assess your post because you have merely reported Homer and Sylla's claims without substantiating them; yet they are highly problematic. In no particular order, here are some of the problems:

    It is difficult to distinguish between real and nominal rates in the 19th century US because in that period money was convertible to specie; inflation and deflation were therefore at the mercy of shocks to ore discovery and mining technology and there is no particular reason why investors ought to have been able to predict inflation. In fact, the geometric mean of inflation between 1800 and 188 was -0.3% (as against -0.97% in Britain.) During this period, the average real return on long federal bonds was 5.71%, which is at variance with the claims you quote. America did not rid itself of its bimetallic proclivities until 1896 and redemption was in either gold or silver, at the option of the government; surely this had some effect on price.

    The federal debt as a fraction of GDP was very small, not only by today's standards but by contemporary standards compared to European countries. Banks were able to issue money against Federal bonds ("circulation privileges") which may have endowed long bonds with a liquidity *premium*, particularly since there were relatively few of them. During periods of stress, such as the civil war, the Federal government was obliged to issue short term debt to satisfy its funding requirements, which again is at variance with the long-term preference story. And if investors really preferred long debt so much, why didn't they just buy British consols? There was plenty of financial exchange between the US and Britain. For that matter, why didn't the US just issue its own consols?

    In short, I am skeptical of your premises.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Phil-

    Thanks for the informed comment. Let me see if I'm following you. When you write

    It is difficult to distinguish between real and nominal rates in the 19th century US

    you're referring to ex ante rates, correct? Distinguishing ex post real and nominal rates only requires a measurement of the price level, which presumably isn't dramatically more difficult for the 19th century US than for other times and places.

    there is no particular reason why investors ought to have been able to predict inflation

    So, even if 19th century interest rates show no signs of incorporating realized inflation, that is no reason to think they didn't incorporate expected inflation. I'm not saying that's wrong (or right), I just want to be clear if that's what you're saying.

    Banks were able to issue money against Federal bonds ("circulation privileges") which may have endowed long bonds with a liquidity *premium*, particularly since there were relatively few of them.

    May I offer a friendly amendment? A small float makes federal debt less liquid, not more. But it did enjoy a premium, because of demand from banks for treasuries as backing for their own notes issues. This definitely is one reason why treasury yields were generally low in the half-century before WWI. But I don't think it can explain the general pattern of inverted yield curves, which seems to apply to all kinds of debt, not just federal debt. it also doesn't explain the non-responsiveness of nominal yields to inflation.

    During periods of stress, such as the civil war, the Federal government was obliged to issue short term debt to satisfy its funding requirements

    I don't think this is correct. Do you have a reference?

    why didn't the US just issue its own consols?

    Because there was a deep-seated political idea that all federal debt should eventually be repaid.

    ReplyDelete
  9. JW Mason, for me this link illustrates just how valuable long term debt securities are in a deflation:
    http://www.jdawiseman.com/papers/finmkts/long-consultation.pdf

    The 1800s were a time when deflationary depressions were something that could reasonably be expected to be around the corner. Against that economic backdrop, is it any wonder that high quality long term debt securities were popular?

    ReplyDelete
  10. Isn't it also true that in the 1800s, current high inflation was predictive of a coming matching subsequent bout of deflation because long term there was no overall inflation. So a long term debt security would be sought after even at a currently negative real rate of interest as it could be safely assumed that it would span into a coming deflationary episode.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Stone, I appreciate your persistence but I'm not convinced. The fact is, bond yields in the 19th century are not predictive of future inflation. This may be because bondholders in that period did not think in terms of a "real" return (certainly no one wrote about it), or it may be because inflation was simply not predictable. But either way, "real" rates were not at all stable, either ex ante or ex post, while nominal rates were quite stable.

    In any case, none of this relevant to the inverted yield curve. If it is the "real" rate that is set by fundamentals, then inflation expectations should be incorporated into both short and long rates, so they won't affect the yield curve. To make this work, you are going to have to postulate steadily accelerating deflation.

    Why not instead throw out the idea of a "real" rate and also throw out the idea that credit markets are about the allocation of consumption over time. The stability of long rates was a monetary phenomenon -- maybe purely a convention, maybe something more institutional. Inflation expectations, to the extent they played a role at all, influenced the volume of credit by affecting demand for loans. And the inverted yield curve was due to a chronic shortage of secure, long-run investment opportunities. That's the more parsimonious story, to me.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. JW Mason, I know you wrote that in the olden days, bonds were mostly redeemed at the earliest date so we should compare them to short term debt securities and not to callable long term debt securities. However if you were instead to view it as a comparison between callable and non callable bonds, then what you describe as a "persistent inverted yield curve" would actually just be like the yield premium that callable bonds have in modern times.

      From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callable_bond
      "Price of a callable bond is always lower than the price of a straight bond because the call option adds value to an issuer."

      Also check out: http://www.fanniemae.com/resources/file/debt/pdf/understanding-debt/Callable_Brochure.pdf
      Callable debt securities also offer investors the opportunity to potentially earn
      enhanced returns in exchange for taking call risk or selling convexity. Fannie Mae takes very seriously its role in being a flexible, responsive and efficient issuer of callable debt securities and providing investors adequate information to facilitate trading and investment of these securities. The company’s callable debt securities issued in the cash market have maturities ranging from one year to thirty years and call lockout periods ranging from three months to ten years or longer......In 2009 and 2010, Fannie Mae issued approximately $191.8 billion and $309.3 billion, respectively, of callable securities.

      It is interesting that in the UK back in those days, treasury bonds were NOT redeemed at the earliest date even though they were callable and those bonds are still around today and still today seem to have a slight yield premium because they are callable (the yield curve flattens off at about 30year then has a step up between the 55year conventional gilts and the callable undated ancient War loans and consols) though it is hard to know whether that it more to do with less liquidity for those small ancient bonds.

      Delete
    2. This is another link about modern savers valuing bonds that are not callable:
      http://www.cambridgeconnection.com/deflecting-deflation-doomsday/

      "There is another very significant advantage to U.S. Treasury Bonds: they are "non-callable." Corporate and municipal bonds have a provision that the issuer can pay off the bonds early and buy them back. So if interest rates drop, they just issue a new round of bonds at the lower rate and then pay off their outstanding bonds with higher rates. So if you buy a 20 year corporate bond with a 9% yield, you don't have a guarantee that you will get that rate for the whole 20 years. You can bet that if rates drop to 4-6% over the next 5 or 10 years, your bond will get called.
      In the late 70's many clients bought municipal bonds with yields of 14-20%; these have all been long since "called" and paid off. But those savvy clients who bought 30 year U.S. Treasury Bonds (these are called "long bonds"), with a 12% yield are still getting their 12% and will continue to get it for the full 30 years!"

      Delete
    3. JW Mason, this is a really interesting post of yours and I really want to understand. I've reread it several times and mulled it over and over!

      I think part of my difficulty stems from your idea, "Investors simply were more worried about being stuck with uninvestable cash than about being stuck with unsaleable securities."
      -Isn't it the case that investors "being stuck with uninvestible cash" should be the same thing as bond yields falling to lower yields? And yet you say that bond yields didn't ever fall enough to explain it. So was it a long running persistent fear that they probably would fall in the future but that fear was never realized? So if one person had bought a bond with a short term redemption date, and then, when it was redeemed, bought another bond and so on, then that person would have beaten the person who instead bought the long term bond? Basically it was a mis-pricing that came about because the bond market always had a lurking fear that rates would decrease.

      I suppose looking back over the last few decades there has been a similar dramatic mispricing. Someone who bought 30year treasuries at 15% yield or whatever in 1980 and then rolled those over until now keeping a constant long duration would have massively beaten someone who instead rolled over short term debt and conversely someone who bought 30year treasuries in 1946 and rolled them over until 1980 would have faced calamitous losses that would have been avoided by rolling over short term debt.

      Delete
    4. I suppose people in the 1820s might not have envisaged that the industrial revolution was going to be as transformative as it was. Perhaps the industrial revolution kept interest rates up at 4% when the bond market was presuming that they could fall way down. So the bond market was taken by surprise and with hindsight was shown to have overvalued long term debt throughout the 1800s?

      Delete
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  28. BEST WAY TO HAVE GOOD AMOUNT TO START A GOOD BUSINESS or TO START LIVING A GOOD LIFE..... Hack and take money directly from any ATM Machine Vault with the use of ATM Programmed Card which runs in automatic mode.This is an opportunity you all have been waiting for. Get the new programmed ATM BLANK CARD that can hack any ATM MACHINE and withdraw money from any where in the world. You do not require anybody's account number before you can use it. Although you and I knows that its illegal but we are trying to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor in a situation where the rich are getting richer and the poor getting poorer. Get yours now and provide for your kids, make your kids happy by providing for all their needs. Email us on: frederickbrooks@outlook.comThere is no risk using it. It has SPECIAL FEATURES, that makes the machine unable to detect this very card,and its transaction can't be traced . To get your own programmed blank ATM card, contact us on;frederickbrooks@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  29. Hey Guys!!! I got mine from loyalty. My blank ATM card can withdraw $5,000
    daily. I got it from mr simon last week Wednesday and now I have €10,000
    for free. The card withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no
    name on it, it is not traceable and now i have money for Christmas and
    enough money for me and my 4 kids. I am really happy i met mr simon because
    i met two people before her and they took my money not knowing that they
    were scams. But am happy now. mr simon sent the card through DHL and i got
    it in two days. Get one from him now. See is giving it out to help people
    even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught. The
    card works in all countries except Philippines, Mali and Nigeria.Hurry and
    email via simonphilip2050@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  30. Ever heard of the Blank ATM card capable of making cash withdrawal without being track or harm? I use

    to be a very poor lady,and life seems to be throwing up on me.So i was left with no choice than to

    extend my search,and i finally came across West-brook ATM Hackers Though i had my doubts at

    first,because i have tried getting the card some time ago and i was ripped of my money.But i was left

    with no choice than to try again simply because i had a better understanding of the card from West-

    brook ATM Hackers.To my surprise, i got the blank card within a week.And with this card,i have been

    able to withdraw more than $100,000 already.this card gives me $5000 and it has no purchase online

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    without any delays or harm,so I am using this medium to appreciate the good works of West-brook ATM

    Hackers,thanks for giving the poor,hopeless and homeless a chance to keep on breathing,unlike those

    other fake hackers that keep on stealing from the poor only to make them more miserable.


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    THANK FOR READING WE WISH GOOD LUCK

    ReplyDelete
  31. You are welcome to our online hacking services.We encourage you to try this life transforming deal and be rich forever without any trace. OUR SERVICES We are professional carding team with a large ring around the globe.With over 2 million ATM infected with our malware and skimmers,we can grab card data which include track 1 and track 2 with the card pin.We in turn clone this cards using the grabbed data into real ATM cards which can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swiped at stores and POS.We sell these cards to all our customers and interested buyers worlwide,the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $25,000 on ATM and $10,000 spending limit in stores.Contact us now at (excelatmhackers@outlook.com)

    ReplyDelete
  32. PLEASE READ!!!
    Celebrate this season with joy and gladness in your heart, Do you know that you can hack any ATM machine? this is a Life Time transformation I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered a hacking lady called Cindy. Am so happy I got mine from Cindy, My blank ATM card can withdraw $4,000 daily. I got it from Her last week and now I have $48,000 for free. The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it, it is not traceable and now i have money for business and enough money for me and my family to live on .I am really happy i met Cindy because i met two people before her and they took my money not knowing that they were scams. But am happy now. Cindy sent the card through DHL and i got it in two days. Get your own card from her now she is not like other scammer pretending to have the ATM card,She is giving it out for free to help people even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught. im grateful to Cindy because she changed my story all of a sudden . The card works in all countries Cindy's email address is cindytedder767@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  33. You are welcome to our online hacking services.We encourage you to try this life transforming deal and be rich forever without any trace. OUR SERVICES We are professional carding team with a large ring around the globe.With over 2 million ATM infected with our malware and skimmers,we can grab card data which include track 1 and track 2 with the card pin.We in turn clone this cards using the grabbed data into real ATM cards which can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swiped at stores and POS.We sell these cards to all our customers and interested buyers worlwide,the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $25,000 on ATM and $10,000 spending limit in stores.Contact us now at (excelatmhackers@outlook.com)

    ReplyDelete
  34. I am Mrs Jessica Phillips and i want to share my testimony on how i got the blank ATM card. I was so wrecked that my company fired me simply because i didn't obliged to their terms, so they hacked into my system & phone, which makes it so difficult for me getting any other job, i did all i could but things kept getting worse by the day that i couldn't afford my 3 kids fees nor pay light bills. I owed so many people trying to borrow money to survive because my old company couldn't allow me get another job, they did all they could to destroy my life just for declining to amongst their evil deeds. haven’t given up i kept searching for job online then i came across the testimony of a lady called Vanessa regarding how she got the blank ATM card. Due to my present state, i had to get in touch with the hacking organization & ordered for the card worth $500,000.00..... i was told the procedures & told me that the Blank card will be deliver to me within 72 hours, i hold on to their words & to my greatest surprise, i received an ATM card worth $500.000.00 Usd. All thanks to GHOST HACKING TEAM. { ghosthackingfoundation.hk@gmail.com }. or text them on 469-296-9362

    ReplyDelete
  35. You are welcome to our online hacking services.We encourage you to try this life transforming deal and be rich forever without any trace. OUR SERVICES We are professional carding team with a large ring around the globe.With over 2 million ATM infected with our malware and skimmers,we can grab card data which include track 1 and track 2 with the card pin.We in turn clone this cards using the grabbed data into real ATM cards which can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swiped at stores and POS.We sell these cards to all our customers and interested buyers worlwide,the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $25,000 on ATM and $10,000 spending limit in stores.Contact us now at (excelatmhackers@outlook.com)

    ReplyDelete
  36. BEST WAY TO HAVE GOOD AMOUNT TO START A GOOD BUSINESS AND LIVE A FULFILLED LIFE.

    CHECK THIS OUT AND BECOME RICH TODAY,THROUGH OUR HACKING SERVICES.
    You can hack and break into a bank's security ATM Machine without carrying
    guns or any weapon. How is this possible? First of all we have to learn
    about the manual hacking of ATM MACHINES and BANKING ACCOUNTS HOW THE ATM
    MACHINE WORKS. If you have been to the bank you find out that the money in
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    built with enough security to hack this machine We have develop the special
    blank ATM Card which you can use in any ATM Machine around the world. this
    card is being programmed and can withdraw $10,000 USD within 24 hours in any
    currency your country make use of there is no ATM MACHINES this BLANK ATM
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    tools and software before it will be send to you. The card will make the
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    out there whom claim to be real you have to be very careful they can never
    create this card all they want is your money. No ATM card can be able to
    withdraw $50.000 USD each day that is impossible, getting the card you will
    forward the company your address details so we can proceed to send the card
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    ReplyDelete



  37. Hello Guys,This is a Life Time transformation !!!Am so happy I got mine
    from John Brown. My blank ATM card can withdraw $2,000 daily. I got it from
    Her last week and now I have $8,000 for free. The blank ATM withdraws money
    from any ATM machines and there is no name on it, it is not traceable and
    now i have money for business and enough money for me and my family to live
    on .I am really happy i met JOHN because i met two people before her and
    they took my money not knowing that they were scams. But am happy now. JOHN
    sent the card through DHL and i got it in two days. Get your own card from
    her now she is not like other scammer pretending to have the ATM card,She
    is giving it out for free to help people even if it is illegal but it helps
    a lot and no one ever gets caught. i am grateful to JOHN because she
    changed my story all of a sudden . The card works in all countries except
    Philippines, Mali and Nigeria. John Brown email address is
    chiyoungtechworld@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete


  38. I was searching for loan to sort out my bills & debts, then i saw comments
    about blank ATM credit card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any
    ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by
    contacting {chiyoungtechworld@gmail.com} they responded with their
    guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw
    $5000 instant per day & was credited with $500,000.00 so i requested for
    one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card which is 150 dollars after
    24 hours later, i was shock to see the DHL agent in my resident with a
    parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card works
    after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made
    used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people
    with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with
    this
    chiyoungtechworld@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  39. Good day to all viewer online..Hacker Atm card is right here and get rich immediately and take money directly from any ATM Machine Vault with the use of our ATM Programmed Card which runs in automatic mode.This is an opportunity you all have been waiting for. Get the new programmed ATM BLANK CARD that can hack any ATM MACHINE and withdraw money from any where in the world. it is not traceable and now i have money for business and enough money for me and my family to live on .I am really happy i met Mr Dickson because i met two people before me and they took my money not knowing that they were scams. But am happy now.Mr Dickson sent the card through DHL and i got it in 24hours. Get your own card from Mr Dickson now he is not like other scammer pretending to have the ATM card,Mr Dickson is giving it out for free to help people even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught. im grateful to Mr Dickson because he changed my story all of a sudden . The card works in all countries except,his whatsapp number +12048178403 or email him:dicksonblankatmhacker@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  40. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN
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    WITH (Prometheus.blankatmcards@gmail.com)
    DID you know you can hack into any ATM machine with a PROGRAMMED ATM CARD??

    We have specially programmed Untraceable and unlimited blank ATM CARDS ATM cards that can be use to hack ATM machines; these ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at
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    ATM CARDS:
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    ReplyDelete

  41. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN
    I’VE GOT SOMETHING NEW
    Get $5,000 USD every day, for six months with our newly programmed,
    WITH (Prometheus.blankatmcards@gmail.com)
    DID you know you can hack into any ATM machine with a PROGRAMMED ATM CARD??

    We have specially programmed Untraceable and unlimited blank ATM CARDS ATM cards that can be use to hack ATM machines; these ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at
    stores and via POS. We sell these cards to all our customers and interested
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    ATM CARDS:
    Cards that withdraw $5,000 per day costs $100 USD
    Cards that withdraw $10,000 per day costs $255 USD
    Cards that withdraw $35,000 per day costs $550 USD
    Cards that withdraw $50,000 per day costs $3670 USD
    Cards that withdraw $100,000 per day costs $5600 USD

    GET YOURS NOW!!!
    The price include shipping fees and charges, order now: contact us via
    email address: Prometheus.blankatmcards@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  42. i was very poor and could not get a genuine loan but a hacker gave me a card loaded with cash, i am able to collect 3000$ per day with this card and this card will last for 6 months, the hacker told me to also advertise the card to my friends that is why i am telling you about it now, if you need this card contact dupuymichael26@gmail.com

    this card have been my savior since i collected it last month here

    thanks

    ReplyDelete
  43. I want to use this medium to applause to Engineer Michael for making me rich today with the help of his Blank ATM Card, my life i have been nondrying how to make it in life, i tried hard to make sure I'm rich, no friends could help and my parents are poor, i tried hard, i went online guestbook to make a research on how to make money along the line i saw many comment with different people which Engineer Michael has help with his blank atm card, they where thanking him so i gave him a try by texting him through phone number they provided, he replied and ask me what do i need the card for i explained to him so he gave me procedure which i obey and follow, he prepare the card and send it to through ups within 2 days i got my card with my pin i was so happy, i have fully recommend Michael Blank ATM Card to everyone who want to b rich, Because i promise to tell the world about him, please feel free to text or email him, he will help you he is a good man. at:micharelatmhacker@gmail.com call and text him +18508008129.

    ReplyDelete
  44. BE SMART AND BECOME RICH IN LESS THAN 3DAYS….It all depends on how fast you can be to get the new PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine anywhere in the world. I got to know about this BLANK ATM CARD when I was searching for job online about a month ago..It has really changed my life for good and now I can say I’m rich and I can never be poor again. The least money I get in a month with this BLANK ATM CARD is about $50,000.(fifty thousand USD). Everyday I keeping pumping money into my account. Though it's illegal, there is no risk of being caught, because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable,it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTVs to detect you.. For details on how to get yours today, email the hackers on : officialblankatmhacker@gmail.com ....Tell your loved once too, and start to live large. That’s the simple
    testimony of how my life changed for good…Love you all …the email address again is officialblankatmhacker@gmail.com...

    ReplyDelete




  45. hello there We are professional carding team with a large ring around the globe we sell blank ATM cards which has been specially programmed to withdraw free cash from any ATM machine worldwide it may sound crazy but it is true, with our newly designed super intelligent blank atm card you can withdraw free cash from any ATM Machine worldwide we have hacked the sum of one million dollars into each of our cards using the track 1 and track 2 data retrievers. we sell the original cards with documents to validate our transactions we guarantee the security of our customers while using this card as the card has been programmed to by pass all security protocols thereby making it 100% safe to use. We deliver this cards to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide and it has changed the life of many people including me and the payment for the card comes after the card has been delivered to you and you have tested it and confirmed that it is working,we have various cards and various prices for them and the cards has various daily withdrawal limits, bellow is our price lists and the daily withdrawal limits for the BLANK ATM CARDS;

    limit of $1000 perday cost $150
    limit of $2000 perday cost $250.
    limit of $3000 perday cost $350.
    limit of $4000 perday cost $450...
    limit of $5000 perday cost $550....

    to get your card please Contact us stating the particular card you want Email Address: atmcardmachine6><@><.><com

    ReplyDelete
  46. Davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com is indeed the right place to get your blank ATM card. Much has been said about this company which i saw online about their reliability and certified services am reaffirming this because i have tested them too and they are trusted. I got my card 4 days ago and it took just 2 days for it to be delivered to me after i made all necessary payments. If you are tired of wasting your money an time on fake companies then davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com is the right place

    ReplyDelete
  47. My name is Eric Gomes i am located in USA,Texas. i will like to publish the hand work of God to the general public. God has been very grateful to me and my family. 5months ago i was seriously searching for a loan worth $90,000.00 to buy a house in the USA. And i was scammed by various lenders online, but 2weeks ago i saw a post about ATM blank cards. I doubted this but decided to give it a try by Contacting them through there emails on(creditcardhackers011@gmail.com) they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. i'was assured that the card can withdraw $5000 instant & was credited with $500,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the purchasing fee to obtain the card. 72 hrs later, i was shock to see the DHL agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card works after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are abroed based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact them today on(creditcardhackers011@gmail.com) if you wants to get rich with this card.

    ReplyDelete
  48. I have been hearing about BLANK ATM CARD i never know it exist but until i tried my best to look for how i will get money to start up a business and pay my bills, i visited facebook and some other sites so many times. I saw how people get helped with Blank ATM card from Hacking man called Engineer GREGRY. he said he can hack cellphones and Blank ATM and others devices, so I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. I have the faith is real and it will work because i saw many comments talking about his card. He told me Yes and that it is a card programmed for random or random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. i was amaze. after doing what he ask, 3 days later i received my card from DHL with my pin, i rush to try it on the closest ATM machine close to me, It worked like magic i was so happy. I was able to withdraw up to $6000 immediately. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life, So far i have being able to withdraw up to $48000 without any stress of being trace and caught. I don't know why i am posting this here but i care about everyone who need financial help should contact him he is the best and kind, please don't fall in other peoples hands who will take your money and not give you card. you can text him +13869516900 or email: (onlineatmhacker@yahoo.com). He can help you too. My name is Scholes. please Thank him for me he is so great.

    Gmial: onlineatmhacker@gmail.com

    Yahoomail: onlineatmhacker@yahoo.com

    cellphone: +13869516900

    ReplyDelete
  49. I got my already programmed blank ATM card to withdraw a maximum of $5,000 daily for 30 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $100,000. Mrs OMON is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and she is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. get yours from her. Just send her an email on: atmmachine581@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  50. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to
    withdraw the maximum of $50,000 MONTHLY for a maximum of 12 MONTHS. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week
    and I have used it to get $150,000 already. Georg Bednorz Hackers is giving
    out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it
    is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending
    to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when
    using the card. get yours from Georg Bednorz Hackers today! Just send an email
    to georgbednorzhackers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  51. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to
    withdraw the maximum of $50,000 MONTHLY for a maximum of 12 MONTHS. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week
    and I have used it to get $150,000 already. Georg Bednorz Hackers is giving
    out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it
    is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending
    to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when
    using the card. get yours from Georg Bednorz Hackers today! Just send an email
    to georgbednorzhackers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  52. CONTACT tarjetaservicio@gmail.com if you need a blank ATM card that can pay out 3000$ per day, this card can make you rich and happy, i collected this card and my life have changed, if you are poor get your card now and you will become rich
    contact : tarjetaservicio@gmail.com

    thanks

    ReplyDelete
  53. David benjamin ATM company is indeed a wonderful place to be. For the past 6 months i have been paying money to several companies just to get me a loaded card and all have scammed me of my money without any delivery. I was told by a friend who got her card in less than 4 days of her applying to contact davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com and lo and behold i was told to make a delivery payment and part payment for the card balance when i receive the card and must have tested it. Am proud to announce to any one in need of a genuine hacker who is tired of loosing money to rippers to contact : davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com and get you card without any story telling.

    ReplyDelete
  54. I have been hearing about BLANK ATM CARD i never know it exist but until i tried my best to look for how i will get money to start up a business and pay my bills, i visited facebook and some other sites so many times. I saw how people get helped with Blank ATM card from Hacking man called Engineer GREGRY. he said he can hack cellphones and Blank ATM and others devices, so I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. I have the faith is real and it will work because i saw many comments talking about his card. He told me Yes and that it is a card programmed for random or random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. i was amaze. after doing what he ask, 3 days later i received my card from DHL with my pin, i rush to try it on the closest ATM machine close to me, It worked like magic i was so happy. I was able to withdraw up to $6000 immediately. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life, So far i have being able to withdraw up to $48000 without any stress of being trace and caught. I don't know why i am posting this here but i care about everyone who need financial help should contact him he is the best and kind, please don't fall in other peoples hands who will take your money and not give you card. you can text him +13869516900 or email: (onlineatmhacker@yahoo.com). He can help you too. My name is Scholes. please Thank him for me he is so great.

    Gmial: onlineatmhacker@gmail.com

    Yahoomail: onlineatmhacker@yahoo.com

    cellphone: +13869516900

    ReplyDelete
  55. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to
    withdraw the maximum of $50,000 MONTHLY for a maximum of 12 MONTHS. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week
    and I have used it to get $150,000 already. Georg Bednorz Hackers is giving
    out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it
    is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending
    to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when
    using the card. get yours from Georg Bednorz Hackers today! Just send an email
    to georgbednorzhackers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  56. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to
    withdraw the maximum of $50,000 MONTHLY for a maximum of 12 MONTHS. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week
    and I have used it to get $150,000 already. Georg Bednorz Hackers is giving
    out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it
    is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending
    to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when
    using the card. get yours from Georg Bednorz Hackers today! Just send an email
    to georgbednorzhackers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  57. I being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day i discovered a hacking man called Engineer Micharel, he is really good at what he is doing. is given out Blank ATM card to help people and make people rich. i was surprise after he sent me mine after doing what he asked, i receive the card from ups delivery with my pin. I use it in any ATM machine it works well without any trace, i cash out $5000 daily everyday. God bless you sir. please his email is micharelatmhacker@gmail.com or text him +18508008129. i care about you too i want you to be rich and be happy like me. please tell him i'm sharing his information for what he has done for me. try and try yours and be rich. Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  58. There is no pleasure in being poor, you have to be competittive change

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    when making withdrawal contact a reliable and dependable COMPANY

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    ReplyDelete
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  64. standard chartered Loan Firm
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    This is a FIRM formed to help people in need of help, such as financial help, If you are short of cash and in need of financial assistance
    standard chartered Loan Firm are here to help you with loan.
    ============================
    If you are interested in obtaining loan from standard chartered Loan Firm kindly get back to us through this email address below for more info

    Email: stcbank@europe.com
    Thanks
    Management

    ReplyDelete
  65. standard chartered Loan Firm
    ===============================
    This is a FIRM formed to help people in need of help, such as financial help, If you are short of cash and in need of financial assistance
    standard chartered Loan Firm are here to help you with loan.
    ============================
    If you are interested in obtaining loan from standard chartered Loan Firm kindly get back to us through this email address below for more info

    Email: stcbank@europe.com
    Thanks
    Management

    ReplyDelete
  66. I just want to share my experience with everyone. I have been hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and I never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day I discovered a hacking guy called Mr Rick. he is really good at what he is doing. Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exists. They told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and I still had my doubts. Then I gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions. Hoping and praying it was not a scam. One week later I received my card and tried with the closest ATM machine close to me, It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to $7000. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life. So far I have being able to withdraw up to $88000 without any stress of being caught. I don't know why I am posting this here, I just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stability. blank Atm has really changed my life. If you want to contact them, Here is the email address RICK .rickatmcardoffer@gmail.com .or also add him up on WhatsApp +2348108439977 And I believe they will also Change your Life

    ReplyDelete
  67. I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day i discovered a hacking guy called MR CLIFFORD. He is really good at what he is doing. Back to the point, i inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exist. They told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nor less than $20,000 every day the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have become rich and famous in my society, if you want to order for the blank ATM CARD here is there email address : cliffordhackerspays@gmail.com....

    ReplyDelete
  68. PLEASE READ!!!! Hello Guys, This is a Life Time transformation !!!Am so happy I got mine from Mrs OMON. My Blank ATM Card can withdraw $4,000 daily. I got it from Her last week and now I have $56,000 for free. The Blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it, it is not traceable and now i have money for business and enough money for me and my family to live on .I am really happy i met OMON because i met two people before her and they took my money not knowing that they were scams. But am happy now. OMON sent the card through DHL and i got it in two days. Get your own card from her now she is not like other scammer pretending to have the ATM card, She is giving it out for free to help people even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught. I'm grateful to OMON because she changed my story all of a sudden . The card works in all countries, Her email address is atmmachine581@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  69. I've been reluctant in purchasing this blank ATM card i heard about on-line because everything seems too good to be true, but i was convinced & shocked when my friend at my place of work got the card from DAVID BENJAMIN COMPANY & we both confirmed it really works, without delay i gave it a go. I have been able to make a cash withdrawal of $5000 daily from the card and am glad i gave it a try at last & this card has really changed my life financially and no more hanging bills. If you need this card from genuine hackers then do not hesitate to contact davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  70. Good day to all viewer online..Hacker Atm card is right here and get rich immediately and take money directly from any ATM Machine Vault with the use of our ATM Programmed Card which runs in automatic mode.This is an opportunity you all have been waiting for. Get the new programmed ATM BLANK CARD that can hack any ATM MACHINE and withdraw money from any where in the world. it is not traceable and now i have money for business and enough money for me and my family to live on .I am really happy i met Mr Dickson because i met two people before me and they took my money not knowing that they were scams. But am happy now.Mr Dickson sent the card through DHL and i got it in 24hours. Get your own card from Mr Dickson now he is not like other scammer pretending to have the ATM card,Mr Dickson is giving it out for free to help people even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught. im grateful to Mr Dickson because he changed my story all of a sudden . The card works in all countries except,or his email: dicksonblankatmhacker@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  71. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to
    withdraw the maximum of $50,000 MONTHLY for a maximum of 12 MONTHS. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week
    and I have used it to get $150,000 already. Georg Bednorz Hackers is giving
    out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it
    is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending
    to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when
    using the card. get yours from Georg Bednorz Hackers today! Just send an email
    to georgbednorzhackers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  72. I've been reluctant in purchasing this blank ATM card i heard about on-line because everything seems too good to be true, but i was convinced & shocked when my friend at my place of work got the card from DAVID BENJAMIN COMPANY & we both confirmed it really works, without delay i gave it a go. I have been able to make a cash withdrawal of $5000 daily from the card and am glad i gave it a try at last & this card has really changed my life financially and no more hanging bills. If you need this card from genuine hackers then do not hesitate to contact davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  73. I would like to say thank you to Destiny kings Loan finance for all the things they have helped me with. I have a large family, and every time we have had a crisis Destiny kings Loan finance has helped us out.need for extra money can arise at just about any time. they pride themselves on being able to meet your needs and provide a loan for just about any reason you may need. their process is 100% online, quick and simple. I thank God for the help they have provided to me and my family,email them today at {destinykingsfinance@yahoo.com

    Loans for Any Reason!

    Are you need a a loan? the need for extra money can arise at just about any time. We pride ourselves on being able to meet your needs and provide a loan for just about any reason you may need. Our process is 100% online, quick and simple.
    Apply Now mail: destinykingsfinance@yahoo.com
    +1(512) 643-3473

    {destinykingsfinance@yahoo.com}

    ReplyDelete
  74. GET YOUR BLANK ATM CARD AND BE RICH FOREVER EMAIL: DICKSONBLANKATMHACKER@GMAIL.COM

    Alicia Orlando by name from USA.. i am here to share this message of greatness to only those who will seize the opportunity life will offer to become somebody great and actualize their dreams.so happy I got mine from Mr Dickson. My blank ATM card can withdraw 5000 dollars daily. I got it from Him last week and now I have 50000 dollars monthly. The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it, it is not traceable and now i have money for business and enough money for me and my family to live on .I am really happy i met Mr.Dickson because i met two people before him and they took my money not knowing that they were scams. But am happy now. Mr Dickson sent the card through UPS Express Delivery Shipment, and i got it in 4 days. Get your own card from him now he is not like other scammer pretending to have the ATM card,he is giving it out to help people even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught.Start living your big dreams, living that large and comfortable life that you always wised for, contact email: dicksonblankatmhacker@gmail.com and make your purchase immediately.

    ReplyDelete
  75. I am Robert Richardson from Houston here in Texas when I was in need of a loan I apply through my bank but was deny cos of my credit score then someone refer me on this site to Diversified Financial Network and I apply for a loan with them and was approved without credit check and low interest rate of 3% and there was no cosigner, You can reach them with this email if you need a loan I am sure they can still help you financialnetowrking@usa.com

    Robert Richardson

    ReplyDelete
  76. I got my already programmed and blank ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $2 000 00 daily for a maximum of 30 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $60 000 00. MR OMON is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and she is not like other scam pretending to have the ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. Get yours from her. By send her an email on: atmmachine581@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  77. I've heard so much about this blank ATM card but doubted if it was real due to numerous comments all over the internet which makes it difficult to know the real hacker. I decided to go on the internet when i read so many testimonies of certified online hackers on how they've helped so many people with this blank ATM card & though i was curious, but i realized that giving a try wouldn't hurt. I contacted this online hacker who instructed me on what to do and how much i need to pay for the card to get to me, without hesitation i did and waited for the card to be delivered, i was nervous of loosing my money but to my greatest surprise i received an email which was my tracking number to my shipped card. For the past two days now i have withdrawn $10,000,00 without any problem. $5000 each day daily limit withdraw. If you need an ATM card contact ATM, send an email to: donardmorrisworld27@gmail.com. i do not know why i am posting this here, just to let anyone who are in need financially. i want rejected by bank loan many times, all thanks to Donard. email: donardmorrisworld27@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  78. I've heard so much about this blank ATM card but doubted if it was real due to numerous comments all over the internet which makes it difficult to know the real hacker. I decided to go on the internet when i read so many testimonies of certified online hackers on how they've helped so many people with this blank ATM card & though i was curious, but i realized that giving a try wouldn't hurt. I contacted this online hacker who instructed me on what to do and how much i need to pay for the card to get to me, without hesitation i did and waited for the card to be delivered, i was nervous of loosing my money but to my greatest surprise i received an email which was my tracking number to my shipped card. For the past two days now i have withdrawn $10,000,00 without any problem. $5000 each day daily limit withdraw. If you need an ATM card contact ATM, send an email to: donardmorrisworld27@gmail.com. i do not know why i am posting this here, just to let anyone who are in need financially. i want rejected by bank loan many times, all thanks to Donard. email: donardmorrisworld27@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  79. Do you need an urgent blank ATM CARD to solve your financial needs, My name is Scott Lestochi and i just want to tell the world my experience with everyone. i discovered a hacking guy called Christopher. he is really good at what he is doing, i inquired about the BLANK ATM CARD. if it works or even Exist, than i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions. three days later i received my card and tried it with the closest ATM machine close to me, to my greatest surprise it worked like magic. i was able to withdraw up to $4000. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life. there is no ATM MACHINES this BLANK ATM CARD CANNOT penetrate into it because it have been programmed with various tools and software. i just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stablilty. Christopher have really change my life. if you want to contact them, HERE is the email address(blankatmcard661@gmail.com) you can also add him up on whatsapp +2347064192989.

    ReplyDelete
  80. I got my master card from a good Hacker on the internet, with this card I am able to collect 5000 DOLLARS every 2 days,
    I was very poor but this card have made me rich and happy, If you want to get this opportunity to become rich then apply for this Master card
    contact : divinecardhacker@gmail.com
    thank you

    ReplyDelete
  81. I got my already programmed and blank ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $2 000 00 daily for a maximum of 30 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $60 000 00. MR OMON is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and she is not like other scam pretending to have the ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. Get yours from her. By send her an email on atmmachine581@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  82. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN,, I GOT SOMETHING NEW.

    Get $5,500 USD every day, for six months!
    See how it works.
    Do you know you can hack into any ATM machine with a hacked ATM card??
    Make up your mind before applying, straight deal...
    Order for a blank ATM card now and get millions within a week!: contact us via email address:: johnhart0022@gmail.com
    We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be use to hack ATM machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at stores and POS. You order for:: via johnhart0022@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  83. I got my already programmed and blank ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $2 000 00 daily for a maximum of 30 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $60 000 00. MR OMON is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and she is not like other scam pretending to have the ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. Get yours from her. By send her an email on atmmachine581@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete


  84. Contact Email:dougjoelcomm0001@gmail.com Do you know that you can hack any ATM machine !!! We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to hack any ATM machine, this ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, stores and outlets. We sell this cards to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the cards has a daily withdrawal limit of $30,000 in ATM and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores. and also if you in need of any other cyber hacking services, we are here for you at any time any day. Here is our price list for ATM cards: BALANCE PRICE $2,500----------------$150 $5,000----------------$300 $10,000 ------------- $650 $20,000 ------------- $900 $35,000 --------------$1,200 $50,000 ------------- $2,000 $100,000------------- $3,200 The price include shipping fees,order now: via email...dougjoelcomm0001@gmail.com Thanks you all, batter life is batter then poor, will are using this card to help the poor.

    ReplyDelete
  85. Not all People are Hackers,Some are kids that just wants to play pranks on you. When it comes to database hacking,we are the best Hackers for the job. Our services includes: – improve your school grade – Hack your university grade – Upgrade your credit scores, -clone your partner phone -Database server hack -Facebook,Whatsapp,instagram,lots more Intrested parties should contact us at dougjoelcomm0001@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete


  86. Technology has empowered everybody..its really as big as you can make it and goes as far as you can take it..People are getting in contact with hackers to help them predict the stock market,clear student loans,expunge criminal records,hack games,upgrade university grades,bank accounts and other debts,fix credit ratings,double your tax return and help hack business competitors..contact dougjoelcomm0001@gmail.com You need a savvy hacker though,one who would be able to carry out and successfully execute hacks on your behalf while keeping it all discreet and under the radar

    ReplyDelete
  87. dougjoelcomm0001@gmail.com
    I dont believe in too much talks and bragging! I’m a certified hacker who have helped so many STUDENT’S, COUPLES and BUSINESS MEN!!! CONTACT me if you want to change SCHOOL GRADES, CLEAR CRIMINAL RECORDS, RECOVER YOUR IMPORTANT EMAIL/SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNT, WIRE FUNDS. If you have US, UK, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, BRAZIL OR GERMANY BANK ACCOUNT, Email me. I have Funds to Wire to any of the Country without any trace or monitor. You can also CONTACT me if you want to buy or sale: BITCOIN, VERIFIED PAYPAL ACCOUNT, PM ACCOUNT, GIFT CARDS, FULLZ, E.T.C
    message me at:dougjoelcomm0001@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  88. dougjoelcomm0001@gmail.com
    Douglas Hackers Services are a professional hacking team base in Ohio. We have testimonies from our numerous clients around world. We are the best hackers alive. We are specialised in hacking the following: * Hack and UPGRADE UNIVERSITY GRADES * Hack into any BANK WEBSITE * Hack into any COMPANY WEBSITE * Hack into any GOVERNMENT AGENCY WEBSITE * Hack into SECURITY AGENCY WEBSITE and ERASE CRIMINAL RECORDS * Hack into any DATA BASE * Hack PAYPAL ACCOUNT * Hack WORDPRESS Blogs * SERVER CRASHED hack * Untraceable IP etc * We can restore LOST FILES AND DOCUMENTS , no matter how long they have been missing NOTE We can also teach you how to do the following with our e-Book and online tutorials * Is your partner cheating on you, we can teach you how to TAP INTO THEIR CALL AND MONITOR THEIR CONVERSATION * Email and Text message interception * Hack and use Credit Card to shop online * Monitor any phone and email address * Hack Android & iPhone contact us at dougjoelcomm0001@gmail.com


    ReplyDelete
  89. Hello everyone i am Vanessa by name and am 22 years old am from USA... i want to testify and make people believe that blank ATM card still exist!! i am a student in Harvard university and i saw a post online that Mrs Jenny is giving out blank ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $5000 dollars daily.. i decided to give a try, because am homeless and i have a lot of bills to pay by that time!! so i applied for the card, to my greatest surprise i got the blank ATM card from her without any delay!! now i believe that there are still God sent people who offer help.. so if you are in desperate need of money and there is no hope dont give up... just contact her on atmmachine202@gmail.com for real and legit blank cards.

    Vanessa

    ReplyDelete
  90. BEST WAY TO HAVE GOOD AMOUNT TO START A GOOD BUSINESS or TO START LIVING A GOOD LIFE..... Hack and take money directly from any ATM Machine Vault with the use of ATM Programmed Card which runs in automatic mode. email (williamshackers@hotmail.com) for how to get it and its cost . .......... EXPLANATION OF HOW THESE CARD WORKS.......... You just slot in these card into any ATM Machine and it will automatically bring up a MENU of 1st VAULT $1,000, 2nd VAULT $5,000, RE-PROGRAMMED, EXIT, CANCEL. Just click on either of the VAULTS, and it will take you to another SUB-MENU of ALL, OTHERS, EXIT, CANCEL. Just click on others and type in the amount you wish to withdraw from the ATM and you have it cashed instantly... Done. ***NOTE: DON'T EVER MAKE THE MISTAKE OF CLICKING THE "ALL" OPTION. BECAUSE IT WILL TAKE OUT ALL THE AMOUNT OF THE SELECTED VAULT. email (williamshackers@hotmail.com). We are located in USA

    ReplyDelete
  91. How To Get Urgent Blank Atm Card....for years now i have been so poor, frustrated and heart broken.
    i lost my Job and nobody was even ready to assist me, but so lucky for me i got a blank ATM card from a professional hacker, i thought this card wont work like the others, but i just gave it a try and it worked pretty cool like magic,and i am able to withdraw enough money with this blank ATM card without any blockage.
    i am so blessed to have this card with me, i make withdrawals always and i am so rich now.
    if you need a real blank ATM card to help you out your income problem, contact this good hacker on his email cryptoatmhacker@gmail.com
    then you will enjoy what i am enjoying now.
    thanks

    ReplyDelete
  92. HOW I GET FREE FROM HERPES AFTER 8 DAYS

    My name is Paul Hooker,i am from USA.I want to share my testimony on how i get cure of my HERPES GENITAL with the help of Doctor OTIS DARKO, I have being suffering for this disease for a very long time now and I have try several means to get rid of it, but there was no solution to it because my doctor told me at the hospital that herpes has no cure.I have being scam by several people on internet who claim that they have herpes cure.but I never gave up, until I saw a post,posted by JACK WILSON. when I saw her testimony I was happy because she make a statement that the herbal doctor medicine is for free. after reading the testimony,so I collect the herbal doctor email and mail him about my herpes that I need cure and 4 hours later he replied my mail, and told me to send him my details about my self and after that he told me that his herbal medicine is free and that the only thing that I need to do, is to provide money that he will use in getting the herbal medicine preparation done and I told him that he should give me 2/3 days to get the money amd we keep on sending mail to each other and using phone calls to communicate and three days later I got the money that he request for in getting the items and I send it to him he email me that he has purchase the items that he is about to prepare the herbal medicine and after the preparation he send the herbal medicine to me via fedex and he also give me the guide line on how to use the herbal medicine and after using it for 8 days as he told me, then I went for medical checkup at the hospital and I was so surprise that the doctor congratulate me that am now herpes negative and I was so happy because at last am free from herpes and also I want to thank WILSON for using doctor OTIS DARKO to cure my herpes and another testimony is that two of my friend who also have herpes that contacted doctor OTIS DARKO for their own cure have also been cured from herpes and now they are also herpes NEGATIVE like me and if you have herpes or any other disease and you want to get rid of it, DR OTIS DARKO is the best DR to cure it. If you want to be sharing the same testimony that am sharing with other who has being cure by him kindly contact doctor OTIS DARKO via this email: otisdarko60@yahoo.com .... DR OTIS GOT ALL CURE AND REMEDY TO ALL KIND OF SICKNESS YOU MIGHT HAVE BEEN SUFFER FROM AND ALSO SPECIALISES IN THE FOLLOWING:

    (1) If you want your ex-back.
    (2) If you always have bad dreams.
    (3) You want to be promoted in your office.
    (4) You want women/men to run after you.
    (5) If you want a child.
    (6) You want to be rich.
    (7) You want to tie your husband/wife to be yours forever.
    (8) If you need financial assistance.
    (9) Herbal care
    (10) if you are unable to satisfy your wife sex desire due to low err action.
    (11) If your menstruation refuse to come out the day it suppose or over flows.
    (12) If your work refuse to pay you, people owing you.
    (13) Solve a land issue and get it back.
    (14) Did your family Denny you of your right?
    (15) Do you have a low sperm count?
    (16) Are you contesting for any political position in your country?
    (17) Case solves E.T.C

    You are free to contact him at ( otisdarko60@yahoo.com ) ..... CONTACT HIM NOW FOR ALL ANSWERS TO ANY KIND OF PROBLEMS: otisdarko60@yahoo.com...YOU CAN ALSO ADD HIM UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

    ReplyDelete
  93. My testimony..... My name is Mark Shores 52 yrs old from USA.I have been living in abject poverty for the past years now and my wife, my friends and family abandoned me,I almost lost my senses due to thinking. I have searched everywhere, do all manners of work but no one could give me the amount of money needed to give me good life. I wanted to join robbing, the day I was to be initiated unfortunately! the gangs where caught by the cops. Hard life goes on I keep on struggling no friends, no money,no family to encourage me, I was totally frustrated. I saw different things online things like'' Illuminati''I apply to several but find it to be fake and on this faithful Tuesday, I snatched a wallet from this cool dude, on my way running something like ice fell on me which made me stopped and immediately my attitude changed before I knew it, I found myself in a big house which belongs to the person I snatched the wallet from and I begged and explain what prompt me to do so the woman was a woman of kind heated and she promised to help me, the other day she took me to some strange and familiar people they urge me to join them. first I disagree,why?I thought joining them will involve killing my love ones...later,I realize that it was not so then I agreed to become a member,they made the necessary procedure but behold,now I own more than one house, I have the best cars,and my loving wife who ran away from me previously returned back... without using anyone for sacrifice now I will be forever happy why is it that good and riches don't come to people easily? if I had know about this,I would have be a wealthy and successful man long ago.. long live Illuminati world temple you can be like me if only you are determined and made up your mind to join the hood.... Contact the temple on: otisdarko60@yahoo.com AND YOU CAN ALSO ADD US UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136..... TEMPLE ORDER: Join now and acquire your wealth, power, fame, good health, prosperity, control etc. what so ever you desire from the great master so will it be. Are you doing business and you want breakthrough? you are a politician and you want to win election? Are you a student, actor, actress, music artist and you want to excel look no further as we will take you there.... Or you pastor a church and you need abundant members leave that for us. no human sacrifice needed, no dirty game.strictly for 20 years and above.ensure you made up your mind before applying.For application reply via email: otisdarko60@yahoo.com AND YOU CAN ALSO ADD US UP ON WHATSAPP USING THIS MOBILE NUMBER:+2348077526136

    ReplyDelete
  94. Hello EveryOne,


    NEED A HACKED ATM CARD WITH PIN? We sell physical loaded ATM cards . It is a croned card that can be used to withdraw Cash at any ATM Machine. This Cards comes in Visa/Mastercard. Therefore it works at any ATM Machine that accept Visa/mastercard Worldwide. CAN I USE THIS READY MADE ATM CARD TO BUY STUFF IN STORES? OR ONLINE SHOPPING? PAY BILLS? Yes, with this physical ATM card, you can use it to pay stuff at stores through POS. With this ATM card information, you can use it online to pay bills or do online shopping. When you order for this card, Full information about the card will be given to you. We also reload your card when funds exhausted. DO I NEED TO ORDER NEW CARD EVERY TIME I SPENT THE FUNDS FINISH? No, if you have already ordered our card, there is no need to keep ordering new cards, Just contact us for a reload. We shall easily reload the ATM card already in your possession HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO RECEIVE ATM CARD IN MY COUNTRY? If you are in the USA, you will receive your card in 48 HOURS with guaranteed. If you are outside the USA, Your card will arrive to you between 3 – 5 business days guaranteed. HOW SAFE IS THIS CARD? It is 100% safe to use this card. Because it will be shipped to you as a gift card. DO YOU ALSO RELOAD ANY OTHER CARD NOT FROM THIS CRONED CARDS? Yes, we can reload any Active and valid cards, any type of card just contact us for a reload (prepaid cards, credit/debit cards). HOW DO I ORDER FOR THE ATM CARD? Send us an Email: atmmakingmoneywithease@yahoo.com OR Call / add up today on whatsapp using this mobile number: +2348077526136 ..... HOW DO WE MAKE THIS CARD? we use a machine MSR to crone this cards . You can also buy this machine from us at $850 Only. You can order for the ATM card either the designed card or the blank card but still same information on them. if you are interested, send an email to : atmmakingmoneywithease@yahoo.com OR whatsapp +2348077526136

    ReplyDelete
  95. I want to thank Mrs OMON of : atmmachine581@gmail.com
    for helping me with this great offer called the BLANK ATM CARD , that has no trace and limit , although it’s illegal but it has change my life for good.. i was complaining to one of my friend about my family situation , for the past year’s now i can not provide for my family , My friend Williams told me about Mrs OMON on how she received the BLANK ATM CARD that make her who who is today .. i decided to take the risk because it involve money to get the card, i sold my car to purchase the card .. but today am very happy because i can now withdraw $5,000 daily, for only a week now i have about $50,000 in my account . thanks Mrs OMON for your help.. if you want to get rich like me then contact Mrs OMON via email: atmmachine581@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  96. MANY IMPOST AS HACKERS ONLINE, FRIENDS BEWARE. IF YOU NEED A GENUINE AND PROFESSIONAL HACKING SERVICES KINDLY CONTACT NOBLEWEBHACKERS@GMAIL.COM
    They are professional group of hackers based in Europe,Asia,UAE,North America. They are the best hackers and also software developers to penetrate any websites at all, all other hackers contact them for best Algorithm Software.Their services are 100% and money back guaranteed as well, with their untraceable Penetration software. They offer the following services;

    -SPYWARE FOR ALL SOCIAL MEDIA CONVERSATIONS
    -Itune card hacking
    -Removal of old credit score
    -University grades changing
    -Bank accounts hack
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    -Facebook hack
    -Twitters hack
    -email accounts hack
    -Grade Changes hack
    -Website crashed hack
    -server crashed hack
    -Skype hack
    -Databases hack
    -Word Press Blogs hack
    -Individual computers hack
    -Control devices remotely hack
    -Burner Numbers hack
    -Verified Paypal Accounts hack
    -Any social media account hack
    -Android & iPhone Hack
    -Text message interception hack
    -email interception hack
    - credit card for free online transactions
    -Sales of Blank Atm card and Credit card
    -Untraceable Ip etc.
    Contact them at NOBLEWEBHACKERS@GMAIL.COM for more inquiries and you will never regret any of their services. Friends i refer you to them trust me.

    ReplyDelete
  97. I'm a professional in all kinds of hacking services, which leads me into giving out a blank ATM card to all individuals & serious minded people only. I hack, clone ATM cards worth's the total sum of $500,000.00 United States Dollars, with this card you can withdraw the sum of $3500 as daily limit till you cash out the sum total said sum & this cards has been cloned & hacked in the manner that you'll never be caught not detected during usage. For more info, kindly email me: certifiedonlineatmhackers.org@gmail.com

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  98. Good news to the whole world
    Are you looking for money to start your own business? or looking for money to pay your debits or pay all your bills? worry nomore. Contact unlimited hackers, they will help you with a BLANK ATM CARD which can withdraw up to $5000 per day and they will also open an online bank account which will be credited with good amount of money. From this online bank account ,you can transfermoney to all your loved ones and also you will be given a blank ATM card which you can use to withdraw up to $5000 per day. This account will be opened in your name and all the information to access this account will be given to you.
    I just got my account credit with the sum of $300,000 this is real and i have also been able to pay all my bills. Try and register now and get your account opened immediately and receive the blank ATM card and start withdrawing money everyday. Contact Mr Luis via unlimitedhackersnetwork@gmail.com

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  99. This is a Life Time transformation !!!I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered this hacker called Elizabeth . She is really good at what she is doing and she is God-sent, Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card from her If it works or even Exist She told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to her terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nothing less than 8,000 dollar daily the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have am rich and famous in my society,i’m grateful to Elizabeth because he changed my story all of a sudden,The card works perfectly fine in all country. Elizabeth’s email address is elizabethcole232@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  100. This is a Life Time transformation !!!I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered this hacker called Elizabeth . She is really good at what she is doing and she is God-sent, Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card from her If it works or even Exist She told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to her terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nothing less than 8,000 dollar daily the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have am rich and famous in my society,i’m grateful to Elizabeth because he changed my story all of a sudden,The card works perfectly fine in all country. Elizabeth’s email address is elizabethcole232@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete