David Glasner is one of an increasing number of Fed critics who would like to see a higher inflation target. Today, he takes aim at a Wall Street Journal editorial that claims that the real victims of cheaper money wouldn't be, you know, people who own money -- creditors -- as one might think, but working people. Higher inflation just means lower real wages, says the Journal. Crocodile tears, says Glasner -- since when does the Journal care about wage workers? So far, so good, says me.
"What makes this argument so disreputable,"he goes on,
is not just the obviously insincere pretense of concern for the welfare of the working class, but the dishonest implication that employment in a recession or depression can be increased without an, at least temporary, reduction in real wages. Rising unemployment during a contraction implies that real wages are, in some sense, too high, so that a falling real wage tends to be a characteristic of any recovery, at least in its early stages. The only question is whether the falling real wage is brought about through prices rising faster than wages or by wages falling faster than prices. If the Wall Street Journal and other opponents of rising prices don’t want prices to erode real wages, they are ipso facto in favor of falling money wages.And here we have taken a serious wrong turn.
Glasner is certainly not alone in thinking that rising prices are associated with falling real wages, and vice versa. And he's also got plenty of company in his belief that since the wage is equal to the marginal product of labor, and marginal products should decline, in the short run higher employment implies a lower real wage. But is he right? Is it true that if employment is to rise, "the only question" is whether wages fall directly or via inflation? Is it true that unemployment necessarily means that wages are too high?
Empirically, it seems questionable. Let's look at unemployment and wages in the past few decades in the United States. The graph below shows the real hourly wage on the x-axis and the unemployment rate on the y-axis. The red dots show the two years after the peak of unemployment in each of the past five recessions. If reducing unemployment always required lower real wages, the red dots should consistently make upward sloping lines. The real picture, though, is more complicated.
As we can see, the early 2000s recovery and, arguably, the early 1980s recovery were associated with falling real wages. but in the early 1990s, employment recovered with constant real wages -- that's what the vertical line over on the left means. And in the two recessions of the 1970s, the recoveries combined falling unemployment with strongly rising real wages. If we look at other advanced countries, it's this last pattern we see most often. (I show some examples after the fold.) So while rising employment is sometimes accompanied by a falling real wage, it is clearly not true that, as Glasner claims, it necessarily must be.
This is an important question to get straight. There seems to be a certain convergence happening between progressive-liberal economists and neo-monetarists like Glasner on the desirability of higher inflation in general and nominal GDP targeting in particular. There's something to be said for this; inflation is the course of least resistance to cancel the debts. But we in the party of movement can't support this idea or make it part of a broader popular economic program if it's really a stalking horse for lower wages.
Fortunately, the macroeconomic benefits of a rising price level don't depend on a falling real wage.